Heijunka is a Japanese term that translates to “production smoothing” or “production leveling.” It is a lean manufacturing technique used to balance and distribute production across different products or product variants evenly over a specific time frame. The primary goal of Heijunka is to eliminate fluctuations in production schedules and respond to changes in customer demand more efficiently. By leveling production, companies can achieve a more stable and predictable workflow, reduce waste, and enhance overall production efficiency.

Key Principles of Heijunka

  1. Takt Time: Takt time is the rate at which products need to be produced to meet customer demand. Heijunka aligns production with the takt time, ensuring a steady flow of products without overproduction or underproduction.
  2. Mixed Model Production: Heijunka facilitates mixed model production, where different product variants are produced in a balanced sequence rather than producing large batches of a single product.
  3. Flexibility: Heijunka allows for greater flexibility in responding to changes in customer demand and market conditions by adjusting production schedules accordingly.
  4. Waste Reduction: By leveling production and producing in smaller quantities, Heijunka helps reduce inventory, overproduction, and waiting times, minimizing waste in the production process.

Application of Heijunka

  1. Production Scheduling: Heijunka involves creating a production schedule that balances the production of different products or product variants to meet customer demand.
  2. Kanban System: In a Kanban system, Heijunka ensures that the right mix and quantity of products are produced based on actual demand signals from downstream processes.
  3. Just-in-Time (JIT) Manufacturing: Heijunka complements JIT manufacturing by ensuring that production matches actual customer demand, reducing inventory levels, and minimizing lead times.
  4. Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED): Heijunka supports SMED by facilitating quick changeovers between different product variants.

Benefits of Heijunka

  1. Stable Production: Heijunka creates a stable production environment, minimizing fluctuations and enabling a consistent workflow.
  2. Reduced Inventory: By producing in smaller, more balanced quantities, Heijunka helps reduce inventory levels and carrying costs.
  3. Improved Responsiveness: Heijunka allows companies to respond quickly and effectively to changes in customer demand and market conditions.
  4. Waste Elimination: Heijunka helps eliminate waste by reducing overproduction and waiting times, leading to improved overall efficiency.

Challenges of Heijunka

  1. Demand Variability: Adapting to fluctuations in customer demand can be challenging, especially in industries with high demand variability.
  2. Implementation Complexity: Implementing Heijunka may require significant changes to production processes, scheduling systems, and worker training.


Heijunka is a valuable lean manufacturing technique that aims to level production and create a stable and efficient workflow. By aligning production with customer demand, Heijunka helps reduce waste, minimize inventory, and enhance responsiveness. While implementing Heijunka may present challenges, the benefits of a more balanced and efficient production system make it a valuable approach for companies seeking to optimize their manufacturing processes.


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